Precise Liquid Flow Measurement and Instrumentation in Divergent Arenas
The tools that are used to determine the rate of flow of fluid, which is either flowing through a pipe or an open channel, are called flow meters. The flow meters are used in various fields to determine the flow rate & leakage, to regulate the flow, indicate the extremely high or low flow, etc. The liquid flow meter and instrumentation are used in different industries based on the different engineering requirements, and it can also be termed as liquid meter, flow indicator, flow gauge, etc. though the application remains the same.
Precision Flow Meter & its Types
The flow meter precisely monitors the flow rate and may provide a visual or proportional output signal to indicate the rate. In specific industries, like the aerospace industry, the determination of the volume of the liquid flowing through a conduit should be accurate whereas, in some applications like in a vineyard, only 5 to10 percent volume accuracy is needed.
There are various types of flow meters depending on the various mediums through which it is flowing. They are mainly categorized into two mediums. Open channel and closed conduit.
Open channel flow- This type of flow has a free surface and is not constricted by any pipe. Its movement is regulated by the force of gravity. Flows in the vented pipelines like a sewer, and in canals are the typical examples. It can further be divided into Flumes and Weirs.
Closed channel flow- The flow caused by the difference in the pressure, and the distance between the ends of the conduit is called the closed channel flow. The properties of the pipeline like the curves, shape, etc. are directly proportional to the flow rate. It is further divided into the following kinds.
Differential pressure flow meter- It is the most widely used flow meter, which utilizes the principle of altering kinetic energy. This produces a signal that is converted to obtain the flow rate, along with the measurement of the differential pressure. This flow meter is divided into Flow Tube, Venturi Tube, Flow Nozzle, Rotameter, and Orifice Plate.
Positive displacement flow meter- This flow meter is used to measure the flow rate of the liquid by correlating it with the number of times the chambers are filled and emptied with the desired liquid. It includes Oval Gear, Rotary Vane Meter, Nutating Disc, and Reciprocating Piston Meter.
Velocity flow meter– This flow meter determines the flow rate in conjunction with the volume flow rate. It transforms the data of the velocity of the water into its volume and is insensitive to the change of viscosity of the fluid. It is divided into Calorimetric, Turbine, Swirl, Electromagnetic, Vortex Shedding, Pilot Tubes, and Ultrasonic Doppler.
Mass flow meter- This meter determines the mass of the fluid flowing through a point per unit time. It comprises of Coriolis and Thermal Flow Meter.
Flow Meter Instrumentation
The various aspects of an industry, mainly the power generation depends upon the competent liquid flow meter and instrumentation. The precise analysis of the density, flow, and volume is done by the various categories of meters available, which has its wide application in various fields.